Paradigms and Object Paradigm in particularly with quote from Grady Booch

The concept of paradigm is a tricky one. To characterize this in some way we can describe paradigm as a outmost explanatory framework or mechanism of modeling a complex thing. (see:

A paradigm offers building blocks to create a model of complex part of reality. These building block are in a sense fundamental to all models ( you could call them explanations as well) that are base on that paradigm.

The paradigms for same aspect are mutually exclusive. Let’s take a concrete example. If you want to create a 3-dimensional model of houses, you can us as you building material for example: Lego bricks, matchboxes or carbon. With each of these materials you can achieve good results but the working techniques differ and of course there are differences in the end results too. Now these three materials – the building blocks – represents here the paradigms. The first (and I consider this most important) result of this consideration is that is impossible to mix paradigms. Either you work with Legos or matchboxes but there no way of mixing these materials. This is universally true with different paradigms explaining the same aspect of the same part of reality.

The article in Wiki also mentions both paradigm shift and paradigm paralysis. It seems that the used paradigms are changed from time to time to more accurate or explaining ones. For instance people hade from the days of antique Greece a very commonly adopted paradigm of solar system. People believed that it is geocentric.  When time passed and people learned more about the universe they realized that their understanding of Solar system was wrong and they had to do a paradigm shift to heliocentric. This shift proved to be a difficult one at least for part of people (at least around Catholic Church). This ended in a paradigm paralysis. The reasons behind this were various and so were the explanations and excuses.

Now let’s consider the object paradigm. The paradigm shift happened from procedural paradigm. The key difference between the paradigms here is in how they describe model’s behavior. The older paradigm has a simple way of slicing the behavior in time and end up with time flow of events as the object paradigm describes the behavior as collaboration of named objects and their separated responsibilities. These ways of describing behavior are mutually exclusive. If you explain the behavior as flow of events there is no point in doing that all over again with collaborative object and their distribution of work. If this would be done one of the models would be completely redundant and unnecessary or even confusing!

I think that most of business application development today are done with OO-languages and most of the design is done in procedural way. My question is how far we are in the paradigm shift and how bad is the paradigm paralysis with procedural approach? The fact is that application development with object paradigm is from 2 to 10 time as effective as with the previous one! In the next post I will elaborate on this and start it with a quote – part of epilogue from Grady  Booch’s Object Solutions book.

  • Software development is difficult
  • Object-oriented technology helps

Is object-oriented technology mature enough upon which to build indus­trial-strength systems? Absolutely. Does this technology scale? Indeed. Is it the sole technology worth considering? No way. Is there some better technology we should be using in the future? Possibly, but I am clueless as to what that might be.

It is dangerous to make predictions, especially in a discipline that changes so rapidly, but one thing I can say with confidence is that I have seen the future, and it is object-oriented.

This was written around 1995. At that time the OO boom was at it’s heights and we all though that transition from procedural would be graduate, smooth and strait forward. It proved to be more difficult and there were a lot of forces against it. There were (some still are) the mighty stakeholder of procedural legacy.  The new concept proved to bee more difficult for many people than we thought.  Anyhow everything here hold today! of course we have learned something in 15 years and we can do things more efficiently today but the bases is here, solid and holds! The software that I am working with can and should all be implemented with OO.


4 Responses

  1. Just want to say what a great blog you got here!
    I’ve been around for quite a lot of time, but finally decided to show my appreciation of your work!

    Thumbs up, and keep it going!


  2. Great blog entry. I have found that it is crucial that all people in same piece of code follow same paradigm – no matter is it object orient or not. And as “objects” are nowadays cool, most of gang like to use them. But the problem is that many think that the thing is an object orient programming language, not the paradigm. Not only designing it procedural way, as you said, but also implementing, documenting, and testing. So, what’s the point to use object orient programming languages in those cases at all? If we are too stupid to use tools we have, why can’t we just try something simpler with simpler tools?

    IMHO: Object orient paradigm is too hard for humans, let’s give up! ;(

    Anyway, it’s really important that you point out importance of paradigm. Thanks for that.

    • Hi
      Your conclution:

      Object orient paradigm is too hard for humans, let’s give up! ;(

      My answer is NO. It is not too hard, but it proves to be somewhat difficult (at lest for some of us) so lets take it seriously!

      An other thing is that OO solutions are in complexity minim. This meas that one can still achieve things with OO that are impossible to implement with other paradigms.

      My motto is : Let’s just start to use it and do it! 🙂

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